A Constraint-based Grammar of Case: To Correctly Predict Case Phrases Occurring without Their Head Verb
Kansai Gaidai University
The current paper argues that the phenomenon in Japanese that case phrases occur without their head verb before the finite complementizer would falsify the HPSG valence/content analysis, for example, in Sag 1997, Pollard and Sag 1994, if no phantom relation corresponding to a verb is used in the syntax or semantics. The HPSG valence/content analysis is that the content of a case phrase structure-shares with a part of the content of its immediately larger constituent only through the valence of its head verb. In the framework of Koga 2000, which does not assume this, a syntax & semantics phrasal rule is proposed to specify the inherent meaning of a case phrase plus the finite complementizer, and not more than that inherent meaning. The semantics of every case form is specified independently of its head verb in Koga 2000. Kogafs 2000 constraint-based grammar of case was implemented on unicorn3 parser developed at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
1.1. A Phenomenon: Case Phrases Occurring Without Their Head Verb before the Finite Complementizer
1.2. A Problem for the HPSG Valence/Content Analysis if No Phantom Relation Corresponding to a Verb Is Used in Semantics:1) For Sag, 2) For Ginzburg, Gregory, and Lappin 2001.
2. An Analysis
2.1. A Framework: Koga 2000
2.2.1. A Phrasal Rule in Syntax and Semantics
2.2.2. Pulman 1997 for an Recovery of the Elided Background of a Focus
A phenomenon in Japanese falsifies the HPSG valence/content assumption if Sag 1997 is extended to Japanese on the assumption that no phantom relation is postulated in syntax or semantics. A grammar with an argument & adjunct phrasal rule, but without the HPSG valence/content assumption, is used as a framework. The grammar contains a phrasal rule for a complementizer phrase with its verb complement elided and a case phrase occurring as the subject or object of its verb, and specifies only the part of the meaning that a form or morpheme inherently has, and not more than that. Ellipsis recovery adds the contextual meaning to that inherent meaning. The study implies that a grammar without the HPSG valence/content assumption is needed for a grammar of Japanese, and invites research on how the previous accounts of other phenomena are modified in the new system for Japanese.