A Constraint-based Grammar of Case: To Correctly Predict Case Phrases Occurring without Their Head Verb

Hiroki Koga
Kansai Gaidai University
h-koga@kansaigaidai.ac.jp

Abstract
The current paper argues that the phenomenon in Japanese that case phrases occur without their head verb before the finite complementizer would falsify the HPSG valence/content analysis, for example, in Sag 1997, Pollard and Sag 1994, if no phantom relation corresponding to a verb is used in the syntax or semantics. The HPSG valence/content analysis is that the content of a case phrase structure-shares with a part of the content of its immediately larger constituent only through the valence of its head verb. In the framework of Koga 2000, which does not assume this, a syntax & semantics phrasal rule is proposed to specify the inherent meaning of a case phrase plus the finite complementizer, and not more than that inherent meaning. The semantics of every case form is specified independently of its head verb in Koga 2000. Kogafs 2000 constraint-based grammar of case was implemented on unicorn3 parser developed at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

1.A Problem
1.1. A Phenomenon: Case Phrases Occurring Without Their Head Verb before the Finite Complementizer
1.2. A Problem for the HPSG Valence/Content Analysis if No Phantom Relation Corresponding to a Verb Is Used in Semantics:1) For Sag, 2) For Ginzburg, Gregory, and Lappin 2001.
2. An Analysis
2.1. A Framework: Koga 2000
2.2.1. A Phrasal Rule in Syntax and Semantics
2.2.2. Pulman 1997 for an Recovery of the Elided Background of a Focus


Conclusion

A phenomenon in Japanese falsifies the HPSG valence/content assumption if Sag 1997 is extended to Japanese on the assumption that no phantom relation is postulated in syntax or semantics. A grammar with an argument & adjunct phrasal rule, but without the HPSG valence/content assumption, is used as a framework. The grammar contains a phrasal rule for a complementizer phrase with its verb complement elided and a case phrase occurring as the subject or object of its verb, and specifies only the part of the meaning that a form or morpheme inherently has, and not more than that. Ellipsis recovery adds the contextual meaning to that inherent meaning. The study implies that a grammar without the HPSG valence/content assumption is needed for a grammar of Japanese, and invites research on how the previous accounts of other phenomena are modified in the new system for Japanese.